biology

Career Resources for Biology Majors:

Biology Degree Types:

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Master of Science (M.S.)

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD.)

Doctor of Medicine (M.D.)

Career Paths:

  • Master’s Degree: 
    • Genetic Counselor
    • Teacher
    • Cell/Molecular Biologist
    • Bioinformatist/Biostatician
    • Research/Lab Technician
    • Medical Scientist
    • Physician’s Assistant
  • PhD:
    • Medical Doctor
    • Geneticist
    • Microbiologist
    • Epidemiologist
    • Cell/Molecular Biologist

  • How to choose a program:
    • Think about what aspects of the biological sciences really fascinate you (which are the ones that you think about even in the shower or bathtub). If you have many interests, you are probably better off in a broad program which permits choice after admission.
    • Browse different kinds of programs. With a specialty interest and some geographic choices, a student can consult Peterson’s Guide for many possible programs. Peterson’s is a compendium, published annually, that includes hundreds of graduate program summaries. It lists each program’s faculty, along with their individual research topics (briefly). For each program, it also gives general information about programs of study, research facilities, financial aid and costs, student life and application requirements. Its contents are organized by type of program, e.g., Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, etc., and it is indexed by university name.
    • Talk to faculty members, particularly ones with whom you are doing research, or ones in the areas of your interest. Most faculty have many contacts in other schools, visit them from time to time, and can give you informed advice.
    • Don’t hesitate to take personal factors into consideration. There are many excellent graduate programs all over the country.
    • After settling on a number of interesting programs, request information from individual schools or check the website. Program bulletins and websites give detailed information on faculty research programs, along with recent publications. With this information, the field of choices should begin to narrow.
    • Plan to visit all of the schools to which you are applying. A one-to-two day visit often provides the crucial information for a decision. A personal visit can be an important source of information and impressions. It can reveal a sense of the school and program atmosphere; provide a view of facilities; and offer a chance to meet and chat with individual faculty members (potential mentors!) as well as current graduate students. To gain the most from a visit, it is wise to go while school is in session (not during vacations). It is also worth looking up some research papers: showing awareness of particular faculty members and their work will enhance the visit. Besides science, other issues the student may address include: the realistic range of opportunities available; expected timetables for completion of different phases of the program; adequacy of supervision/interaction; possibilities for switching labs or projects, if necessary; rate of student attrition; post-graduate fates; integration of graduate students with the rest of the university community; variety of graduate course offerings; housing arrangements and costs; and of course, general student happiness and satisfaction with the program. It is important to discuss these issues both with faculty members and with current graduate students.

Helpful tips to prepare for graduate study in Biology:

This is a great article on preparing for and applying to M.D. and PhD. Programs

Make sure to check all the requirements set forth by the graduate school such as GRE or GRE Subject tests, certain courses or multiple semesters of courses, work/volunteer experience, accepted majors, etc.

Strategies

  • Develop strong relationships with faculty and secure strong faculty recommendations
  • UNH is a member of CURE: Connecting Connecticut’s Science Community http://cureconnect.org/ This website can be used to network with other professionals and companies as well as look for internships and jobs
  • Consider joining a professional organization to network with other professionals
  • Obtain a Ph.D. for teaching and advanced research and management positions
  • Develop multiple areas of specialization through coursework, minors, double-majors in molecular biology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, or machine learning. Develop strong programming and database management skills; fluency in several programming languages is helpful.
  • Learn and understand bioinformatics and other biological software systems
  • Learn federal, state, and local government job application process. The federal government is the largest employer of biologists.
  • Gain experience with grant writing and fundraising techniques. Often research must be funded in this manner

  • Include your area of specialization or minor (if applicable)
  • Identify skills/certifications not included in work experience (CPR trained, experienced mechanic)
  • Create a positive impression by tailoring your résumé to each position and employer
  • This is a resource from the U.S. Wildlife and Fisheries department about “Tips for Writing a Federal Resume”
  • This is a resource for how to make a CV for Scientists: http://ocs.fas.harvard.edu/files/ocs/files/gsas-just-for-scientists-cvs-resumes.pdf?m=1439576763
  • Make a relevant courses section under your education and list courses tailored to the job your are applying for
  • Here’s a list of skills to possibly use from the University of Toronto Mississippi
  • Communication and Interpersonal:
    • write literature reviews and scientific reports; summarize, condense and organize ideas and information; interact professionally with a multidisciplinary team of researchers, technicians, students and professors; adapt vocabulary to suite a wide variety of audiences including the general public and senior scientists; use various visual aids including overhead projectors, computers and posters to conduct oral presentations on research findings; create graphs to visually represent data; read and understand scientific journals
    • Research:
      • collect and preserve field organisms; dissect preserved or euthanized specimens; memorize large amounts of information; inspect specimens; conduct journal research; analyze and evaluate information
    • Technical:
      • use computer programs; perform laboratory procedures; trouble shoot laboratory equipment; maintain laboratory equipment and instrumentation; comply with quality control procedures; comply with safety regulations
    • Quantitative:
      • observe and make measurements on organisms; analyze data for trends; apply statistical tests to data to test for significance
    • Thinking Critically and Problem Solving:
      • interpret trends from results; reason logically
    • Organizational:
      • manage time effectively; manage multiple priorities during peak times during the academic year

  • What experiences have you had related to research?
  • Aside from classroom texts and experience, what journals or professional articles are you currently reading for professional development?
  • Give us an example of when you used good judgment and logic to solve a problem.
  • What are the complementary base-pairing rules for biology?
  • Describe your own strengths, particularly strengths that you feel will help you in this field.
  • There are plenty of times where you will be on a strict deadline to submit proposals for grant money or to complete an experiment. How would you describe your time management and organization skills?
  • A plus in biological science is having knowledge about multiple disciplines, such as entomology, botany, or molecular biology. What is your experience in varying areas of biology?
  • Out of all the different areas of science, what was your inspiration to pursue biology?
  • Can you describe a point in time where your work as a biologist was criticized? How did you handle the situation?
  • Please discuss your familiarity with lab techniques/instrumentation from lab courses or internships (i.e., aseptic technique, cell culture, running of various types of assays, PCR, gel electrophoresis, Western Blotting, DNA/RNA extraction or purification, HPLC, GC/MS, UV-Vis).These are questions University of Kent:
    • How good are your practical laboratory skills?
    • What practical techniques have you carried out in University Labs? What laboratory experience have you gained on your courses?

    These are biology interview questions from Towson University for biology majors

  • What part of your studies have you found most interesting and why?
  • Describe your own strengths, particularly those strengths that will help you to excel in this field.
  • What classroom experiences do you feel have best prepared you for a career in Biology?
  • What experiences have you had related to research? What qualities do you have that make you an effective researcher?
  • Aside from classroom texts and experimentation, what journals or professional articles are you currently reading for professional development?
  • You have prepared a report for the organization’s advisory board. All the facts included in the report have been documented, checked, and double-checked. However, one of the supervisors states that the report is incorrect and demands that you make the correction. What is your response?
  • Give me a specific example of a time when you used good judgment and logic in solving a problem.
  • Be prepared for technical, scientific questions like:
    • Who created the two-part naming system used in biology?
    • What is an organ that belongs to more than one organ system?
    • How does the odor of flower petals help pollination?

Biological Technician

Median Salary:$39,750

Outlook: 10%

Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

Median Salary:$57,710

Outlook: 5%

Medical Scientists

Median Salary:$79,930 per year

Outlook: 8%

Microbiologists

Median Salary:$66,260

Outlook:+7% (slower than average)

Biochemists and Biophysicists

Median Salary:$81,480

Outlook:19%

Conservation Scientists and Foresters

Median Salary:$59,060

Outlook:3%

Microbiologists

Median Salary:$67,790

Outlook:4%

University of New Haven

Yale University

  • Biological & Biomedical Sciences (PhD.)
  • Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Cellular & Molecular Physiology (PhD.)
  • Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (M.S./PhD.)
  • Experimental Pathology (PhD.)
  • Genetics (PhD.)
  • Immunobiology (PhD.)
  • Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program (PhD.)
  • Microbiology (PhD.)
  • Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry (PhD.)
  • Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (PhD.)
  • Neurobiology (PhD.)
  • Pharmacology (PhD.)
  • Ecology & Evolutionary Biology (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (M.S./PhD.)
  • Chronic Disease Epidemiology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases (PhD.)

Yale School of Medicine

  • D. Program
  • D./PhD. Program
  • MMSc
  • D./M.H.S. – Health Sciences
  • D./M.P.H. – Public Health
  • Physician Associate Program (P.A.)
  • D. in Investigative Medicine
  • D. in Biological and Biomedical Science (BBS)

Southern Connecticut State University

  • Biology (M.S.)
  • Science Education (M.S.)

Central Connecticut State University

  • Biological Sciences: Anesthesia (M.S.)
  • Biological Sciences: Ecology and Environmental Science (M.A.)
  • Biological Sciences: General Program (M.A./M.S.)
  • Biological Sciences: Global Sustainability (M.A.)
  • Biological Sciences: Health Sciences Specialization (M.S.)
  • Biomolecular Sciences (M.A.)
  • Teaching: Teacher Education with Specializations in Sciences (7-12) (M.A.T.)

University of Connecticut

  • Animal Science (M.S./PhD.)
  • Applied Genomics (M.S.)
  • Anthropology (M.A./PhD.)
  • Applied Microbial Systems Analysis (M.S.)
  • Biodiversity and Conservation Biology (M.S.)
  • Biomedical Science (PhD.)
    • Cell Biology
    • Cell Analysis and Modeling
    • Genetics and Developmental Biology
    • Immunology
    • Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
    • Neuroscience
    • Skeletal, Craniofacial and Oral Biology
  • Biostatistics (M.S.)
  • Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Healthcare Genetics (M.S.)
  • Molecular and Cell Biology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Cell and Developmental Biology
    • Genetics and Genomics
    • Microbiology
    • Structural Biology, Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • Pathobiology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Bacteriology
    • Pathology
    • Veterinary Anatomic Pathology
    • Virology
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences (M.S./PhD.)
    • Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry
    • Neurosciences
    • Pharmaceutics
    • Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Physiology and Neurobiology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Comparative Physiology
    • Endocrinology
    • Neurobiology
    • Neurosciences
  • Systems Genomics (PhD.)
  • Curriculum and Instruction (M.A./PhD.)
    • Science Education
  • University of Connecticut School of Medicine

New York University

  • Biology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Biology and Business (M.A./M.B.A.)
  • Neural Science (PhD.)

NYU School of Medicine

Boston University

  • Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Biotechnology (M.A.)
  • Bioimaging (M.S.)
  • Bioinformatics (M.S., PhD.)
  • Biology (M.A., PhD.)
  • Biomedical Forensic Sciences (M.S.)
  • Biostatistics (M.A., PhD.)
  • Earth Sciences (M.A., PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Forensic Anthropology (M.S.)
  • Genetic Counseling (M.S.)
  • Medical Sciences (M.S.)
  • Doctor of Medicine/Master of Business Administration (MD/MBA)
  • Doctor of Medicine/Master of Public Health (MD/MPH)
  • Molecular Biology, Cell Biology & Biochemistry (M.A., PhD.)
  • Neuroscience CAS/GRS (M.A., PhD.)
  • Pathology & Laboratory Medicine (M.A., PhD., MD/PhD)
  • Physician Assistant Program (M.S.)
  • Physiology & Biophysics (M.A., PhD.)
  • Science Education (MAT, EdM, EdD)
  • Science Journalism (M.S.)

Boston University School of Medicine

University of California – Berkeley

  • Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (M.A,, PhD.)
  • Comparative Biochemistry (PhD.)
  • Computational Biology (PhD.)
  • Endocrinology (M.A., PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Health and Medical Sciences – Medical Program (M.S.)
  • Infectious Diseases & Immunity (PhD.)
  • Integrative Biology (PhD.)
  • Medical Anthropology (PhD.)
  • Metabolic Biology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Microbiology (PhD.)
  • Molecular & Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Molecular Toxicology (PhD.)
  • Neuroscience (PhD.)
  • Optometry (O.D.)
  • Vision Science (PhD.)

Columbia University

  • Biomedical Informatics (M.A.& PhD.)
  • Biotechnology (M.A.)
  • Conservation Biology (M.A.)
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Biological Sciences (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (PhD.)
  • Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Cellular Physiology and Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Studies (PhD.)
  • Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology (PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (PhD.)
  • Genetics and Development (PhD.)
  • Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection (PhD.)
  • Neurobiology and Behavior (PhD.)
  • Nutritional and Metabolic Biology (PhD.)
  • Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine (PhD.)
  • Pharmacology and Molecular Signaling (PhD.)

Quinnipiac University

  • Molecular and Cell Biology (M.S.)
  • Cardiovascular Perfusion (M.H.S.)
  • Medical Laboratory Sciences (M.H.S.)
  • Pathologists Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • Physician Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • Radiologist Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • D.
  • Anesthesiologist Assistant Program

Wesleyan University

  • Biology (PhD.)
    • Evolution and Ecology
    • Neurobiology and Behavior
    • Cell and Developmental Genetics
    • Integrative Genetics
  • Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (PhD.)

University of New Haven

Yale University

  • Biological & Biomedical Sciences (PhD.)
  • Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Cellular & Molecular Physiology (PhD.)
  • Computational Biology & Bioinformatics (M.S./PhD.)
  • Experimental Pathology (PhD.)
  • Genetics (PhD.)
  • Immunobiology (PhD.)
  • Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program (PhD.)
  • Microbiology (PhD.)
  • Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry (PhD.)
  • Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (PhD.)
  • Neurobiology (PhD.)
  • Pharmacology (PhD.)
  • Ecology & Evolutionary Biology (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (M.S./PhD.)
  • Chronic Disease Epidemiology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases (PhD.)

Yale School of Medicine

  • D. Program
  • D./PhD. Program
  • MMSc
  • D./M.H.S. – Health Sciences
  • D./M.P.H. – Public Health
  • Physician Associate Program (P.A.)
  • D. in Investigative Medicine
  • D. in Biological and Biomedical Science (BBS)

Southern Connecticut State University

  • Biology (M.S.)
  • Science Education (M.S.)

Central Connecticut State University

  • Biological Sciences: Anesthesia (M.S.)
  • Biological Sciences: Ecology and Environmental Science (M.A.)
  • Biological Sciences: General Program (M.A./M.S.)
  • Biological Sciences: Global Sustainability (M.A.)
  • Biological Sciences: Health Sciences Specialization (M.S.)
  • Biomolecular Sciences (M.A.)
  • Teaching: Teacher Education with Specializations in Sciences (7-12) (M.A.T.)

University of Connecticut

  • Animal Science (M.S./PhD.)
  • Applied Genomics (M.S.)
  • Anthropology (M.A./PhD.)
  • Applied Microbial Systems Analysis (M.S.)
  • Biodiversity and Conservation Biology (M.S.)
  • Biomedical Science (PhD.)
    • Cell Biology
    • Cell Analysis and Modeling
    • Genetics and Developmental Biology
    • Immunology
    • Molecular Biology and Biochemistry
    • Neuroscience
    • Skeletal, Craniofacial and Oral Biology
  • Biostatistics (M.S.)
  • Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Healthcare Genetics (M.S.)
  • Molecular and Cell Biology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Cell and Developmental Biology
    • Genetics and Genomics
    • Microbiology
    • Structural Biology, Biochemistry and Biophysics
  • Pathobiology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Bacteriology
    • Pathology
    • Veterinary Anatomic Pathology
    • Virology
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences (M.S./PhD.)
    • Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry
    • Neurosciences
    • Pharmaceutics
    • Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Physiology and Neurobiology (M.S./PhD.)
    • Comparative Physiology
    • Endocrinology
    • Neurobiology
    • Neurosciences
  • Systems Genomics (PhD.)
  • Curriculum and Instruction (M.A./PhD.)
    • Science Education
  • University of Connecticut School of Medicine

New York University

  • Biology (M.S./PhD.)
  • Biology and Business (M.A./M.B.A.)
  • Neural Science (PhD.)

NYU School of Medicine

Boston University

  • Biochemistry & Molecular Biology; Biotechnology (M.A.)
  • Bioimaging (M.S.)
  • Bioinformatics (M.S., PhD.)
  • Biology (M.A., PhD.)
  • Biomedical Forensic Sciences (M.S.)
  • Biostatistics (M.A., PhD.)
  • Earth Sciences (M.A., PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Forensic Anthropology (M.S.)
  • Genetic Counseling (M.S.)
  • Medical Sciences (M.S.)
  • Doctor of Medicine/Master of Business Administration (MD/MBA)
  • Doctor of Medicine/Master of Public Health (MD/MPH)
  • Molecular Biology, Cell Biology & Biochemistry (M.A., PhD.)
  • Neuroscience CAS/GRS (M.A., PhD.)
  • Pathology & Laboratory Medicine (M.A., PhD., MD/PhD)
  • Physician Assistant Program (M.S.)
  • Physiology & Biophysics (M.A., PhD.)
  • Science Education (MAT, EdM, EdD)
  • Science Journalism (M.S.)

Boston University School of Medicine

University of California – Berkeley

  • Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (M.A,, PhD.)
  • Comparative Biochemistry (PhD.)
  • Computational Biology (PhD.)
  • Endocrinology (M.A., PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Health and Medical Sciences – Medical Program (M.S.)
  • Infectious Diseases & Immunity (PhD.)
  • Integrative Biology (PhD.)
  • Medical Anthropology (PhD.)
  • Metabolic Biology (M.S., PhD.)
  • Microbiology (PhD.)
  • Molecular & Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Molecular Toxicology (PhD.)
  • Neuroscience (PhD.)
  • Optometry (O.D.)
  • Vision Science (PhD.)

Columbia University

  • Biomedical Informatics (M.A.& PhD.)
  • Biotechnology (M.A.)
  • Conservation Biology (M.A.)
  • Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Biological Sciences (PhD.)
  • Biostatistics (PhD.)
  • Cell Biology (PhD.)
  • Cellular Physiology and Biophysics (PhD.)
  • Cellular, Molecular and Biomedical Studies (PhD.)
  • Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology (PhD.)
  • Epidemiology (PhD.)
  • Genetics and Development (PhD.)
  • Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection (PhD.)
  • Neurobiology and Behavior (PhD.)
  • Nutritional and Metabolic Biology (PhD.)
  • Pathobiology and Molecular Medicine (PhD.)
  • Pharmacology and Molecular Signaling (PhD.)

Quinnipiac University

  • Molecular and Cell Biology (M.S.)
  • Cardiovascular Perfusion (M.H.S.)
  • Medical Laboratory Sciences (M.H.S.)
  • Pathologists Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • Physician Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • Radiologist Assistant (M.H.S.)
  • D.
  • Anesthesiologist Assistant Program

Wesleyan University

  • Biology (PhD.)
    • Evolution and Ecology
    • Neurobiology and Behavior
    • Cell and Developmental Genetics
    • Integrative Genetics
  • Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (PhD.)